## How big is everything?

**Define Magnitude:**

The great size or extent of something.

**Define Powers:**

The product obtained when a number is multiplied by itself a certain number of times (e.g 22)

**Distinguish between accuracy and precision:****Accuracy:**

How close the results are to the actual value

**Precision:**

How close they are to each other

**Define S.I Units:**

The French “Système international d’unites” (International System of Units) is the modern form of the metric system. It is a system of measurement in which there is one Base unit for every kind of measurement (e.g meter is for length) and Orders of Magnitude are exemplified by adding symbols in front of the base unit.

**State the ranges of the magnitude of distances, time, and masses that occur in the universe, from smallest to greatest:**

Each object has a size, however, the table featured below shows the order of sizes of things in the universe. They are not exactly these sizes, but they roughly are.

**Recall the S.I. prefixes, units, and scientific notation.**

In front of every S.I Base Unit, there are prefixes. These prefixes determine what magnitude the thing you are measuring is.

E.G: a 10^15m size thing would make it a petameter (Pm), or maybe be weighed as a petagram (Pg)

**State ratios of quantities as differences of orders of magnitude.**

Stating the ratio of a difference between orders of magnitude is simply done by taking two sizes (for this instance x=10^-12 and y=10^-9) and then you calculate the difference between them (10^3= 1000). With that, you now know that the ratio of x to y is 1:1000.

In simple terms, this can be expressed as 1:(10^x-10^y=10^x-y)

**Demonstrate proper use of significant figures in scientific calculations:**

Significant figures/digits (also known as sig figs) are digits that are used to express a degree of precision, starting from the first non-zero digit in the number. To write a sig-fig, you have to find the first non-zero numbers, and then you have to count the zeros that precede it (if in the form of a decimal). The more zeros, the higher the magnitude (e.g. 3 zeros in front of the first sig fig would make it 10^-3)

E.G: in the number 0.00700, the significant figures all of the digits from the first non-zero digit, which is 700 x 10^-3

**Show the uncertainty of measurements:**

No matter what, in every measurement you take, there will always be some sort of uncertainty to it.

The formula to calculate uncertainty is to divide the smallest division by 10, and that number will give you two things. It will tell you how many digits should be recorded in your measurement, and it will tell you the last number that you should record

E.G: If I have measured something on a decimal ruler, and I got 2.60. To calculate the uncertainty, I would have to do 1mm (the smallest division) divided by 10, which would give me 0.01cm. Thus, I add that to my measurement (1+2.60=2.61cm) and I have a more precise measurement.

**Protons and Electrons:**

Atomic Number

**Neutron:**

Atomic Mass – Atomic Number

**Valence Electrons:**

Periodic Table Group Number

**Define Allotrope:**

Allotropes are different products created by different structures of the same element, so for example diamond, graphite and graphene are all allotropes of carbon since all of their physical structure is made up of carbon

**Explain how the structure and arrangement of atoms can produce different materials and discuss the impacts this might have on the world:**