## Force Matter Interactions

Define Matter:

Particles that occupy space and possesses mass

Define Force:

A force is any interaction to an object that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.

How is the force measured:

Force is measured with the unit, “Newtons”, represented by the symbol, “N”. If you were to have a large force and you were to measure it, it might come out as 2N, or 7N.

Define Nucleon:
The term to represent both or either a proton and/or a neutron

Friction:
Friction is a force between two surfaces that are sliding, or trying to slide, across each other. Friction always works in the direction opposite to the direction in which the object is moving or trying to move.

Recall the names of the four ‘fundamental’ forces:

No matter what, everything that happens is a result of either one of the four fundamental forces. They are electromagnetic, gravitational, strong nuclear and weak forces.

Analyze the four fundamental forces in terms of strength and distance of the action

Discuss bar magnets and magnetic fields

A typical bar magnet is present in a rectangular shape; therefore, containing north and south poles on opposing ends of the bar magnet. Opposite poles attract each other and like poles repel each other. A magnetic field of a magnet is represented in magnetic field lines. These lines demonstrate the direction of the magnetic force at any given position.

Recall that the Earth is a magnet with its own magnetic field

Earth is a sphere magnet with north and south poles on opposite ends. The magnetic field of the earth is known as the geomagnetic field and is caused by the iron-rich core of the earth.

Outline that matter is both kept together and kept apart by electrostatic attraction and repulsion

According to Coulomb, matter is both kept together and kept apart by electrostatic attraction and repulsion by the two rules relating to the charges of matter. When two charges have the same electric charge, they repel from each other but when the two charges are different, they attract each other. The distance between the two charges also impacts the electrostatic attraction or repulsion. When the charges are close to each other, the attraction or repulsion increases, but when they are further apart the attraction and repulsion decrease.

Outline the difference between mass and weight

Mass is the amount of matter an object contains (kg) and is constant anywhere in the universe. However, weight is dependent on the location of the object and the gravitational force exerted on it. This means that weight can be measured by multiplying the mass of an object by the gravitational force of the location of the object.

Outline the significance of the relative sizes of the gravitational and Coulomb constants
The greater the size of the masses, the greater the size of the gravitational force (also called the gravity force). The gravitational force weakens rapidly with increasing distance between masses. The coulomb constants are different to the gravitational forces as they are able to attract or repulse, unlike the gravitational force which can only be an attractive force or only a repulse.

Evaluate which of the four fundamental forces is the most useful to Mankind.

Each type of force contributes majorly to the survival of Mankind and enhancing the living standards of humans. However, some forces have a larger impact on humanity and the nature of the universe than others. One of these forces is gravity. Despite gravity being one of the weakest forces, without it, our planet would not be in the position of the universe that it is currently in as it wouldn’t be orbiting the sun. Therefore, without this golden position, humans wouldn’t be alive. Another major force is nuclear forces, without nuclear forces, nuclear fission and fusion wouldn’t be possible; therefore, all suns wouldn’t be capable of releasing energy and we would freeze.

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