## What is Matter?

Define Matter:

Matter is the particles that make up things in our universe. Anything that takes up space and has mass

Define Ion:

An Ion is an atom/molecule with a net electric charge caused by the loss/gain of electrons

The Density Formula:

d=m/v | m=dv | v=m/d
d =density
m= mass
v= volume

The density of something is considered as its mass per unit volume. Mathematically, density is defined as the mass of an object divided by its volume. It also works inversely, so mass is equal to the density multiplied by the volume, and so on.

Solve questions using the density formula:

Question 1: Mass of an 8cm cubed block

Mass = 32 grams

Density is 32/8= 4

Question 2: 50 cm cubed container 250 grams cooking oil

Density= Mass/Volume

250/50= 5

Difference between Weight and Mass:

Mass is a constant of how heavy something is, whereas weight is the product of mass applied to gravity

Law of Conservation of Mass:

The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions, but it can be changed from one form to another. According to the law of conservation of mass, the mass of the products in a chemical reaction must equal the mass of the reactants. For a variety of equations, the law of mass conservation is useful and can be used to solve, for uncertain masses, the volume of gas absorbed or generated during a reaction.

Example of Mass Conservation:

When wood burns, the mass of the soot, ashes, and gases all remain equal to the original mass of the charcoal and oxygen when it first reacted

Law of Conservation of Energy:

The Law of Conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, but can only change forms

The difference between atoms, elements, compounds & mixtures

Atom:

An atom is an extremely small particle (the smallest) that is made up of protons, neutrons & electrons.
(e.g. hydrogen atom, gold atom)

Element:

Every element is made up of one of its own types of atoms

(e.g, silver and gold)

Compound:

A compound has two or more separate elements bonded together.

(e.g, salt and water)

Mixture:

A mixture is a substance in which two or more substances are mixed but not chemically joined together. They can be easily separated

(e.g. sand and water)

Explain the Differences between Pure and Impure Substances

Only one substance comprises a pure ingredient or compound, with no other components added in. Mixtures of components, combinations of chemicals, or mixtures of elements and compounds may be impure materials.

Describe states of matter with examples:
In four states, matter occurs: solids, liquids, gases, and plasma. A substance’s state of matter may also be altered by adding or withdrawing heat energy from it. The addition of fire, for instance, will dissolve ice into liquid water and turn water into steam.

Describe the properties & the associated particle arrangement in each of the three states of matter:
Matter can exist in one of three main states: solid, liquid, or gas. Solid matter is composed of tightly packed particles. A solid will retain its shape; the particles are not free to move around. Liquid matter is made of more loosely packed particles. It will take the shape of its container. Particles can move about within a liquid, but they are packed densely enough that volume is maintained. Gaseous matter is composed of particles packed so loosely that it has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume. A gas can be compressed.

Define and explain what is meant by kinetic theory:

By considering their molecular structure and motion, the kinetic theory or kinetic theory of gases seeks to describe the overall properties of gases, such as heat, temperature, or volume. Basically, the hypothesis notes that pressure is not induced, as earlier scientists believed, by molecules moving each other away.

Identify changes of state from a graph:
If you are adding heat to a sample at a constant rate, you plot the temperature against time. Temperature is the vertical axis. Time is the horizontal axis. If you heat the solid, it gradually warms up. You get the blue line in the graph above. At some point, the solid will melt. You reach a plateau where the temperature remains constant as long as both solid and liquid are present. The heat energy is used to convert the solid into a liquid, so the temperature does not change. Once the solid has melted, the added heat goes into warming up the liquid. You get the green line in the graph. At another point, the liquid will boil. You reach a second plateau where the temperature remains constant as long as both liquid and gas are present. The heat energy is used to convert the liquid into a gas. Again, the temperature does not change. Once the liquid has disappeared, the added heat goes into warming up the gas.

Define Diffusion:

Diffusion is often done between two substances, one of them being aqueous, in which a substance’s particles are spread throughout the aqueous solution until the substance has covered an equal amount of volume. This stage of equality is known as Diffusion Equilibrium

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